Led plant factory: China has its own top agriculture (2)
Yang Qichang recalled that the systematic research on plant factories in China began 15 years ago with the research on "closed artificial light plant production system" and "hydroponic cultivation nutrient solution detection and control system" of the Environmental Development Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; But the earlier source can be traced back to the facility "microclimate" research group in the 1950s, "this is a cause that has been tackling key problems for more than 60 years and passed on by generations of scientists"
in 2005, Yang Qichang found that the combination of red and blue light of LED can provide an ideal spectrum for plant photosynthesis; He immediately imagined that it would be a new development direction to use led in plant factories to replace fluorescent lamps at that time
due to the large gap between the spectral components required by civilian LEDs and plants at that time, the team successively contacted many domestic scientific research institutions such as the semiconductor Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and spent several times the price of civilian LEDs to jointly develop four sets of LED plant light source board systems; Over the next two years, they successively carried out experimental research on plant seedling cultivation, leaf vegetable cultivation, medicinal plant cultivation and plant tissue culture, and obtained a large number of plant light formula parameters. After that, with the support of the national "863" plan project "Research on production technology of intelligent plant factories" and the innovation project of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 15 production, University, research and application units jointly tackled key problems, and finally achieved a series of innovative breakthroughs: they took the lead in proposing light formulas for multiple plants, and created LED energy-saving light sources based on light formulas and their light environment control technical equipment; The light temperature coupling energy-saving environmental regulation method was proposed for the first time, and the energy-saving environmental regulation technical equipment of plant factories was created; First put forward the method of light nutrition regulating vegetable quality, and created the technology and technical equipment of short-term continuous light before harvest to improve quality; It took the lead in proposing intelligent control methods for improving light efficiency, energy efficiency and nutritional quality of plant factories, and created an intelligent control system based on IOTAugust 31, 2009 is a day recorded in the development history of China's plant factories. The norms of the team's response are not very perfect, and the first domestic intelligent plant factory developed with Beijing Central Yida made a brilliant debut at the Changchun Agricultural Expo, which received the surprise eyes of more than 1.7 million visitors; It marks that China has become one of the few countries in the world that systematically master the technology of intelligent plant factories. At the same time, China's plant factory technology has begun to move towards the world. Plant LED light source products based on light formula have been promoted to the United States, Japan, Europe and so on; The complete set of plant factory products has been promoted to Singapore and other countries. "In the future, plant factories can also become China's business cards." Yang Qichang is full of confidence
led plant factory: China has its own top-level agriculture. It should often add smooth oil
technology Qu Jian
in the 1990s, when I passed the Lenovo bridge area of the North Third Ring Road in Beijing today, I always wondered: is there farmland within the Third Ring Road? Later, I learned that it was the experimental field of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
I don't know when this experimental field has been built with large steel houses, which look neither like office buildings nor residential buildings; Later, I learned that it was a LED plant factory much higher than the ordinary experimental field
all the dishes here can be picked and eaten directly
"all the dishes here can be picked and eaten directly." As soon as I entered the door, Liu Congwen, deputy general manager of Beijing Zhonghuan Yida facility Gardening Technology Co., Ltd., said to me
not long ago, I was invited to the first intelligent LED plant factory in China near the Lenovo bridge. In the hall of more than 300 square meters and in the glass room, there is a plant seedling factory composed of double row 5-story seedling racks. Under the blue and purple artificial light source, the neatly arranged seedlings are thriving. Liu Congwen said that the seedling raising efficiency per unit area can reach more than 40 times that of conventional seedling raising, and the seedling raising cycle can be shortened by more than 40%. Outside the glass room, there is a vegetable factory with five layers of cultivation beds. Lettuce for leaves is planted on the fine round ceramsite "soil", almost every one of which looks exactly the same, giving you a taste of the mystery of "industrialized production". According to Liu Congwen, this is a deep flow (DFT) hydroponic cultivation mode. The cultivated leaf lettuce takes only about 20 days from planting to harvesting, which is 40% shorter than the conventional field cultivation cycle. The yield per unit area is more than 25 times that of open field cultivation. The product is clean and pollution-free, and the commodity value is high
in front of a set of "facility agriculture IOT control system" display screen called agrilink, Liu Congwen explained how the LED plant factory carries out intelligent management: the environmental control system is composed of sensors, controllers and actuators. "There are dozens of sensors here", covering temperature, humidity, illumination, II 9 Select the microcomputer interface, such as the concentration of carbon oxide, the pH value of nutrient solution, the concentration of nutrient solution (EC value), the temperature of solution, the dissolved oxygen (do value) and other crop root upper environment, and press the indenter (steel cone or steel ball) into the surface factor of the sample and its rhizosphere environmental factor. Through the sensor and the visual analysis system equipped with artificial intelligence camera, constantly optimize and adjust the parameters such as temperature, light, water, gas and fertilizer, collect the changes of plant growth phenotypic parameters and carry out learning and calculation, obtain the data model of crop growth optimization, and implement "plant dialogue". "The ultimate goal is to maximize output and optimize quality with the least resources."
let agriculture get rid of heaven and earth and be free and controllable
"led plant factory is internationally recognized as the most advanced stage of the development of facility agriculture." Said Yang Qichang, the founder of plant factory technology in China and the chief researcher of the "facility plant environmental engineering team" of the Institute of agricultural environment and sustainable development of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
it is said to be the most advanced because it enables agriculture, which has been "relying on the sky" and relying on natural circulation for thousands of years, to get rid of the sky (sun) and be replaced by artificial light sources; It also got rid of the ground (soil) and was replaced by nutrient solution, realizing efficient production in a controllable environment, "which is a real disruptive technology"
how efficient is "efficient production"? Yang Qichang explained that the yield per unit area can reach dozens or even hundreds of times that of open field natural cultivation, but the water consumption is less than 5%. As a plant factory is an efficient agricultural system that realizes the annual continuous production of crops through high-precision environmental control in the facility, and the computer automatically controls the temperature, humidity, light, carbon dioxide concentration and nutrient solution in the process of plant growth, it is not or rarely restricted by natural conditions, and can be realized in the desert, Gobi, islands, water surfaces and other non arable land, as well as urban skyscrapers or ordinary homes, Even in the outer space environment, the production of crops continues to provide human needs
on the ninth cold day, if you think the weather is cold, the price of vegetables is expensive, or you are worried about the safety and quality of vegetables, you might as well prepare a "home plant factory" the size of a refrigerator at home. You can grow whatever you like, and "grow it easy, eat it at ease, and have fun". This is not a scientific fantasy, but has been achieved
but only 10 years ago, only a few developed countries such as Japan, the United States and the Netherlands mastered this technology in the world. "For us, this was science fiction at that time"
in the future, plant factories can also become China's business cards